Descriptive Research design Techniques:- Sometimes an individual wants to know something about a group of people. Maybe the individual is a would-be senator and wants to know who they’re representing or a surveyor who is looking to see if there is a need for a mental health program.
Descriptive Research is a study Designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, Descriptive Research is all about describing people who take part in the study.
There are three ways a researcher can go about doing a descriptive research project, and they are:
- Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants
- Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals
- Survey, defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a specific topic
Descriptive Research design Techniques
- Observational Method: with the observation method (sometimes referred to as field observation) human behavior is closely observed. There are two main categories of the observational method – naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of Research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments. This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real- life situations.
- Case study Method: case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate prediction. There are two serious problems with case studies – expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Expectancy effects include the experimenter` s underlying biases that might affect the actions taken while conducting research. These biases can lead to misrepresenting participants` descriptions. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity.
- Survey Method: In survey method Research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly.